Department of Nature Protection
The Department of Nature Protection was founded in 1973. The main directions of the department’s work are the study of biodiversity and monitoring of biota in the objects of the natural reserve fund. Work is under way to increase the area and number of FPF facilities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The department includes the nature reserve “Cape Martyan”, formed on the lands of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden (Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR No. 84 of February 20, 1973).
The reserve is located on the southern coast of the Crimea near the city of Yalta. The area is 240 hectares (including 120 hectares of adjoining Black Sea water area). The unique and scientific value of the reserve lies in the fact that typical landscapes and a rich gene pool of flora and fauna of the Mediterranean type are preserved here, which is connected with its location on the northern border of the Mediterranean floristic region. The reserve’s water area is one of the few natural sites on the southern coast of the Crimea with typical bottom vegetation, characterized by high algophytic variability.
The main value of the reserve is relict forests from juniper high ( Juniperus excelsa Bieb. ), Which in Ukraine are found only on the southern coast of Crimea, where the northern border of their Mediterranean area passes. Unique community as strawberry tree ( Arbutus andrachne L. ), representing a variant of the Mediterranean maquis and Pistachio ( Pistacia mutica Fisch. Et Mey. ). These woody plants are included in the “Red Book of Ukraine” to form in the reserve rare communities included in the “Green Book of Ukraine.”
Protection of Nature The flora of the reserve of higher plants consists of 537 species (19.4% of the flora of the Crimea), of which 5 species are gymnosperms, 529 – to angiosperms and 3 – to the ferns. Here 40 species of rare higher plants are preserved (7% of the reserve flora), incl. 38 species included in the Red Book of Ukraine, 6 – in the International Red List of IUCN, 7 – in the European Red List, 10 – endemic of the Crimea, 12 – relics. In the terrestrial flora of lower plants 35 species of bryophytes and 259 species of lichens are represented.
On the territory of the reserve 229 species of macroscopic fungi are recorded, which makes 1/4 of the biodiversity of macromycetes in the Crimea. More than 20 species – rare or regionally rare, 4 species – king boletus ( Boletus regius Krombh.), Clathrus ruber ( Clathrus ruber Pers.), Klavariodelfus Pistillate ( Clavariodelphus pistillaris (© Fr.) Donk . ) And a mushroom-umbrella maiden ( Macrolepiota puellaris (Fr.) MM Moser) – are included in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Protection of Nature The aquatic complex is the keeper of the gene pool of marine flora and fauna. There are 129 species of macrophyte algae (62% of the southern coast of the Crimea noted for the floristic region), 59 species and forms of diatoms, 65 species and forms of blue-green algae. Rare for the flora of the Black Sea are 52 species, and 2 species – Nemalion helminthoides (Vell.) Batt. And Laurencia hybrida (DC.) Lenorm. Are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. More than 200 species of marine animals – fish, mollusks, crustaceans, etc., are found in the area of the reserve. The
species list of the reserve’s fauna currently includes 16 mammal species, 7 reptile species, 4 amphibian species, 150 bird species, 67 fish species, 91 species of mollusks, About 500 species of insects, 119 species of roundworms. All three species of Black Sea dolphins are usual for the reserve: Bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), Azovka ( Phocoena phocoena ), blond ( Delphinus delphis ). This allowed the reserve to become one of the strongholds in the national network for the study and conservation of the Black Sea cetaceans (NSC).
On the territory of the reserve there is a monument of archeology “Ruscofil-Calais”. Here, on the steep headland, the remains of the masonry of a medieval fortress (XIII-XV centuries AD) were preserved. According to the decision of the Executive Committee of the Crimean Regional Council of Workers’ Deputies dated September 5, 1969, No. 595, this object was taken under protection as a monument of local archeology. The monument “Ruscofil-Kale” is important for studying the era of feudalism on the southern coast of the Crimea.
The reserve conducts educational and methodological and environmental education work. There is an excursion route along the ecological path, allowing to conduct educational work on the promotion of environmental knowledge and the formation of an ecological outlook. Having visited an ecological path, excursionists can get acquainted with natural complexes characteristic for the reserve and the Southern coast of Crimea, with features of geomorphology, relief, soils, vegetation, underwater plant and animal world of the Black Sea.
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